of General H H 'Hap' Arnold
1944 | diary
March 1945 | |
July 10, 1945 --
July 30, 1945
July 10, 1945
Trip delayed by thunder storms until T.
O. time of 12:00 midnight. A cold front
along course with thunderstorms.
July 11, 1945
Took-off at 11:30 P.M. for Mingan,
1,026 miles from Washington.
ARGONAUT IV normal crew with Dice,
Skipper. General Marshall, General Hull,
General Norstad, General Cabell, General
Jamison, Colonel Husk, Captain Shepley,
Major Sheffield, and yours truly.
Arrived Mingan at 4:20 A.M.
Everyone up at 4:00 -- not much
Met at plane by Colonel "Pop" E. P.
Breakfast at club -- dressed for
fishing at Kern's house.
Weather good. Auto to town of 300
people and then up Mingan River in canoe
One hour up river to Lodge on Island
where falls is located -- $l,000.00 per
rod for fishing. We did not get a strike,
although it was an excellent pool at
bottom of falls and Salmon jumping all
Back to Mingan and had a 3-hour
Marshall's plane came in -- we lost
from our passenger list Marshall, Hull and
Shepley. We gained Cabell, Stone and
Dinner at 7:00 and took-off for Paris
at 8:20 P.M. E.W.T. Distance 2,500
Cold -- almost like winter. To bed
July 12, 1945
Took-off 8:20 E.W.T., 12:20 P.W.T.
Cold and fairly calm -- good night for
Up at 10:20 P.W.T.
Reached Brest Peninsula at 12:00 P.W.T.
Very few evidences of war -- except
destruction at Brest and St. Mâlo --
an occasional bridge out and bomb craters
where there were in portant road
junctions, railroad crossings, supply
points in woods, airports. Rest of France
between Brest and Paris looks as it always
did -- fields cultivated -- cattle grazing
-- churches and cathedrals -- small towns
-- boats in harbors.
Landed 2:35 P.M., P.W.T. Should be 4:35
-- there seems to be difference of 6
Landed at Orly. Cannon, Bevans, Haag
present at field.
Drove to Hotel Raphael.
Not much change in France since my last
visit. The French are still floundering
and need leaders. They are suffering from
an inferiority complex -- want to be a big
nation, but have few if any of the
attributes of a big nation. De Gaulle
hasn't shown much so far.
French women and men -- slave labor and
POWs . coming back with Polish, German,
Russian children -- Paris will certainly
get some new blood. Taken with the
American it can't help but in prove the
A snack lunch and then a drive to Les
Invalides. It was closed -- we got in and
then couldn't get out. Finally appealed to
the keeper to open up gate and let us out.
Then Tom got the idea to have them open up
Napoleon's tomb and give us a private
tour. The French Dame -- upon hearing who
we were -- Sheffield, Dean, Norstad and me
-- told of having harbored, sheltered 22
of our airmen who had parachuted down --
was caught by the Germans and with her
husband put in concentration camp. Then
took her key and opened up the Invalides
-- we had a private tour -- all through
the building and thru the holy of holies
of the tomb. She showed us where the
Germans had broken off pieces of bronze
figures -- marred and marked the tomb --
taken the key to the lower level where the
tomb itself stands.
Back to hotel.
Dinner at 3:30.
Light at 10:30 -- in bed at 11:00.
July 13, 1945
Up at 7:30.
While in Manila Smoak said that she
never received my letter re her services
in my office -- why -- will look up.
Went out to St. Germain to Cannon's
Headquarters. Had presentation of their
status by staff -- directed by
It looks as if we should be out of
England by November 1st, if the Surplus
Property people can take over by that
time. Construction in occupied Germany
should be completed by November 1st.
Radial airdromes for H. B. in Norway,
Denmark, France, Italy approved by J.C.S.
are being now considered by each Country
through our Ambassadors. If we don't have
any better luck on the diplomatic level
than we had with Portugal re The Azores,
we will get them for the next war.
Our A-2 section here is copying by
microfilm all German technical documents
-- requires about 60,000 feet of film a
month. U. S. tells them that they can only
have 6,000 a month -- A-2 is doing it in
England in conjunction with R.A.F. Will
have documents 50% completed by November
Our technical experts are getting 100%
cooperation from British and 0% from
Russians. Fortunately only about 35% of
the data Germans had is in Russian area.
Germans, in many cases, destroyed original
documents after making copies, then they
hid the copies. We were also very
fortunate in being able to find the
copies. Thus we should have a complete
story of the G.A.F. technical development
We nave been able to send back to the
U.S. samples of most of the developments,
for instance 25 ME-262s, the plane in
which one pilot shot down 43 of our
Gave staff my ideas as to what we
needed for our A.A.F. development:
- The war with Japan in over
as far as creative work is concerned.
The die is cast. There is very little
we can do other than see the planes and
personnel with supplies get over
- All of our planning should be
directed toward the future.
- We must have the professors in Von
Karman's board see all gadgets and data
and drawings so as to give us a Buck
Rogers pro gram to cover the next 20
- We cannot let the American people
down by sniping back to out 1933
- Accordingly we must make accessible
to the long-haired boys all information
available from all sources from all
- Our program for the future must
cover note only technical development
of material but also for training our
personnel and for the training of units
and their technique of operations.
We left most of the staff at St.
Germain and Tom Pete and I took off for
the Raphael Hotel. Entered Paris via
As approached the Arc de Triomphe it
was apparent that the French were going to
have a parade -- almost as many cops along
the street as we have soldiers in A.A.F.
We didn't stop -- passed the Arc -- on
toward the Place de Vendôme. Finally
we saw the parade approaching -- cars and
chasseurs in their highly Polished casques
-- brilliant red coats -- patent leather
boots. Heading the parade a French cavalry
general -- in rear a column of cars. We
were stopped by the police. I said that I
wanted to stay where I was -- to see the
parade. The General saw my 5 stars on auto
and about had a Lit. He saluted, waved,
beckoned and almost fell out of his car. I
The parade passed with the Sultan of
Morocco headed for the tomb of the Unknown
Soldier to lay a wreath.
We continued to our Hotel with the
self-appointed M.P. guide on a motorcycle
who led the way.
Lunch with J. C. H. Lee and Cannon.
Lee thinks that he can get all troops
out of France but occupation forces by
March 1, 1946.
No big men in sight in France as
No real food shortage.
As I left Hotel to get into car saw
that there was a big crowd -- soldiers,
civilians, French, Americans lining
streets. They had seen my 5 stars and were
waiting to see who. They cheered and
clapped -- I saluted and waved.
Drove to Orly with Cannon and am taking
him to Salzburg with me.
498 miles. Took-off 2:25 P.W.T. Went to
Salzburg via Nuremberg and Munich.
Arrived 5:45. P. M.
Nuremberg is badly hit in center of
town. Industrial section about completely
destroyed -- thousands of houses flattened
-- turned into rubble and many thousands
of others gutted by fire.
Munich -- same as Nuremberg
Upon landing at Salzburg was met by
Maj. Gen. Geof. Keyes and Brig. Gen
Found that Hank had been transferred to
45th Division Staff and was at Rheims or
in vicinity en route home. Had left 106th
A.A. Bn. Sp.
Tried to get him to meet me here .
Left Geof. Keyes and with Tobin, Cannon
and [Howard] Rusk headed for our
Germany has little to show for war
except in industrial section.
People are fairly- well dressed -- look
well fed -- fields are cultivated -- stock
looks in fine condition. Crops are being
harvested mostly by hand.
We set out for Berchtesgaden Hof -- by
Hitler's auto -- open touring car.
Beautiful drive up into mountains.
Reminds me of Switzerland. Hotel is
place where Chamberlain, Mussolini, Prime
Minister of Austria and others waited to
A beautiful spot -- mountains, rocky
peaks, snow on mountain tops and in
valleys -- green fields -- trees and
forests -- houses on mountain side -
meadows -- crops being harvested -- river
with lots of water running -- villages
with Swiss type houses. Happy people.
I was assigned suite normally occupied
by Himmler -- Göring suite at Ritz,
Paris and now Himmler suite at
Drinks on balcony overlooking valley
Entertainment by Bavarian troupe that
could crash Diamond Horseshoe on Broadway
Excellent Moselle .
Bed at 10:30.
What a place to rest and relax.
July 14, 1945
Up at 7:30.
Breakfast on balcony overlooking valley
-- peaks -- rocky crag -- snow -- sunlight
on mountain tops -- firs -- pines -- in
mountain lodges -- houses on mountain
Local inhabitants do all farming and
harvesting by hand. Stack hay and other
crops on poles to dry -- cut peat from
ground and dry it.
Left hotel at 9:00 with Gen. Tobin, C.
G., Ind. Brigade of Antiair-craft for
Hitler's retreat. It is located up steep
mountain road at altitude of about 5,000
feet. Village is about 1,500 feet.
Hitler's Eagle's Nest at about 8,500
The road -- retreat -- tunnels (12
miles) under retreat -- the Eagle's Nest
-- elevator shaft up 400 feet to Nest --
power plant was 4 years' work (1934 -- 38)
with 3,000 men. The road runs through
several tunnels and is for long distances
cut through solid rock -- the elevator
shaft and power plant room for the Eagle's
Nest are cut through solid granite. The
cost in dollars would be almost beyond an
estimate in the U. S..
His retreat has a hotel -- SS guard
barracks -- house for Göring -- one
for Goebbels -- and Hitler's own house.
The barracks, Hitler's house and the
garage were a wreck due to bombing. . It
is very hard to visualize interior due to
fire. The tunnels beneath go down for the
equivalent of 4 stories.
The Eagle's Nest is intact -- except
for souvenir hunters who have taken away
or broken off everything that could be
detached. Door knobs, electric light
fixtures, locks on doors, house
furnishings -- they have even cut off
pieces of the rugs.
The building is of stone with wonderful
views in all directions -- large dining
room to seat 20 all finished in oak.
Elevator man who ran elevator for Hitler
still there -- elevator has trap door to
lower compart-ment where SS men rode --
carries 10 people. Operator points out
with pride where Hitler, Eva Braun, etc.,
all sat in car.
From there we went to Königsee
where we have taken over 6 hotels for
recreation for enlisted men. Met Colonel
Jones -- and his secretary -- a countess
whose father was German Ambassador to
Argentina. She lost a husband and 2 sons
in war. Was educated in England and U.S.
Very out-spoken about Hitler -- thinks he
was a curse to Germany -- does not believe
average young German is willing to give up
ideas of fighting in the future as they
are inbred in German youth. Only hope
would be to get youths over to U.S. (at
German expense) to see what we do to keep
our youth busy and how our country
operates as a peaceful nation.
She tried to give me a $400.00 watch
which I promptly returned.
Had lunch with enlisted men. Took a
ride on lake in electric launch -- 8
horsepower, 12 miles per hour. Kaiser
Wilhelm had a villa there as did P. R.
Leopold -- Rudolph -- a beautiful
Back to hotel and rest at 3:00 P.M.
No word from Hank.
Looking back on the construction up on
the mountain -- it is fantastic -- beyond
comprehension of a sane mind -- could be
of no value to anyone but Hitler and he
used it very little. The Eagle's Nest was
used only 2 or 3 times . He could have
brought in 3 or 4 divisions and made a
stand in a redoubt that would have caused
our Armies severe losses and many months
of hard campaigning -- that would have
been a use for it. As it was it served no
useful purpose -- other than to give a
build-up to a maniac.
Colonel Jones, who commands enlisted
men's recreation center on Königsee,
comes from Merion, Pa. Has 2 textile mills
at Mauch Chunk.
Have been using Hitler's open Sedan for
past 2 days, a Mercedes touring car --
Left hotel at 7:00. Went to Tobin's
Headquarters. Quite a grand place -- much
more ornate than any we have. It was
Keitel's headquarters nearby Hitler's
retreat -- not anywhere near as luxurious
as Hitler's, though -- the furnishings
were far better than any we have in the
U.S. Wonderful paintings in dining room .
Rugs -- furniture were of the best pre-war
Just before dinner one of Tobin's staff
came to me and said that Hank had at last
been found and would arrive at 8:00. We
were at dinner when he came in. He had
been up in the forward area -- forward for
troops going home -- making arrangements
for 45th Division in vicinity of
Some of our various messages or
messengers g caught up with him. He is now
on Frederick's staff -- Division is
scheduled to sail August 12. I an going to
get in touch with his C.G. and try and
take him back to U.S. with us.
After dinner we all -- Keyes, Cannon,
Hank, Tobin and my staff -- all went back
to Königsee and saw a Bavarian folk
play -- fireworks given for benefit of the
soldiers. It was very interesting and the
lake, the mountains, lights on boats, all
the surroundings made it almost like a
The Headquarters, Antiaircraft Brigade
of Tobin's presented me with an excellent
example of wood carving -- a deer
splendidly executed in all details.
July 15, 1945
Awake at 7:20.
Non-fraternization ban was lifted last
night at 6:00. It was a farce, for when
Americans have been away from home for 1,
2, 2'/2 years fighting, the period of
letdown relaxation comes -- they want to
talk to someone besides their comrades.
The British and the French made no attempt
to conform to the ban. Now the G.I.s are
allowed to talk to the Germans --
Austrians in public. Last night before it
was lifted there were 3 G.I. s on one
bench, 3 frauleins on an adjacent bench --
that is, when we were in sight -- when we
returned a few minutes later they had all
Left hotel for Göring's art
treasures at 10:300 A.M. Baggage left for
Our escort still with us -- 1 jeep, 4
men with tommy guns in front and 1 in rear
-- all with iron bats.
Göring art treasures -- collected
from Paris, Berlin, cities in Italy and
all Europe a valued at anywhere from 100
to 200 million dollars. Consists of best
paintings, tapestries and statues of
Europe. Some of them came from private
collections such as Rothschild's -- some
from best museums in Europe -- some given
to him by such people as Mussolini,
Franco. Report has it that he bought and
paid for many. Most bought for him by Dr.
Hofer, a famous art collector in
Took-off for Berlin 12:47, S.W.T.
Distance to Berlin 500 miles via
E.T.A. 4:40 E.W.T., 3:40 S.W.T.
Three Raphaels worth over 2 million --
it is out of this world -- all were
rattling around in a special train when
captured by 101st Airborne Division. Some
of the statues lost heads and arms in the
train -- many of the paintings scarred and
marred. Now all are in a very inflammable,
insecure Inn near Berchtesgaden. It is
heavily guarded -- collection is being
inventoried -- expect that inventory will
be completed by 1 month.
They look strange, these invaluable,
priceless paintings standing around on
floors, wash stands, toilets, in halls of
a mountain lodge.
Hank with me to Berlin.
Said goodbye to Cannon at Salzburg.
Rested until 4:00 on plane.
Landed at Berlin (Gatow) 4:40.
President Truman landed just ahead of
Marshall from Frankfurt landed just in
King has been here for 2 days.
British and Russian soldiers lined
street at intervals all the way from the
airport to #96 Berliner Strasse where
Marshall, McCarthy, Sheffield and I
Our house is very well furnished --
soldier cook -- just who lived here I do
Marshall and I called on the Secretary
of War and had a long talk with McCloy,
Bundy and the Secretary mostly re ultra
scientific developments .
Back to house and study for conference
at 10:00 tomorrow.
July 16, 1945
The water here is awful -- full of
chemicals -- the lake at the back of our
house is like a sewer.
The countryside is beautiful -- trees
about like the main line.
The British and our delegation have
areas side by side. The Russians have the
rest of the city as far as I can see now
-- the U.S. and British have parts of
city, but we must be within Russian
I will find out more today.
In order to secure houses and equipment
for British and American areas for this
conference, Russians used following very
effective system -- they notified all
Germans living in [Neubabelsberg]
area (it is the Hollywood, the movie
colony district of Germany) to get aboard
trains for Russia.
They entertained no protests.
When one woman objected and refused to
move they shot and buried her in her front
yard. There were no other protests. The
houses were vacant -- completely furnished
when we arrived.
First meeting of J.C.S. agreed to
agendas, procedure at meetings, program to
be submitted to C.C.S. this P.M.
Had 15 minutes with President, and he
- (a) Proclamation re Air Force
- (b) Supreme C.O. in Pacific
(c) A.A.F. recommendations for handling
matters brought up by Prime Minister or
Saw Harriman for a few moments.
Portal called my attention to bet made
in 1942 when I bet him $l0.00 that a bomb
would land on Washington -- check in
Made another bet with Portal -- dinner
-- that Jap War would be over nearer to
December 25th than to Valentine Day
C.C.S. meeting all according to Hoyle
-- no untoward instances.
Gave air situation in Pacific.
Marshall and I went to tea with British
Chief of Staff, then for a wonderful trip
Out Berliner Strasse Auto Bahn -- to
Bismarck Strasse -- Charlottenburg Strasse
-- Unter den Linden -- through the
Tiergarten down Seelig Weg -- to Reichstag
to Chancellery -- to Wilhelm (?) Statue,
then back to Potsdam and home.
We saw Berlin and Potsdam at their
worst -- not a house for miles -- not a
building regardless of whether in a row or
isolated that was not damaged or destroyed
in Berlin and Potsdam. People streaming
into Berlin on bicycles, pushing carts,
baby buggies -- old. and young -- with all
their household belongings and no place to
go but amid ruins -- stink and smell of
rotting bodies and broken sewers -- the
Chancellery a wreck -- Hitler's
magnificent office with its marble top
desk ruined -- the Reichstag like a bad
dream -- Russian soldiers striking,
pushing German men and women -- all women
in Berlin were raped by the Russians,
according to Germans -- Russians paying
$500 for a watch, $200 for 5 cartons of
The Chancellery with Iron Crosses,
Legions of Merit and Honorable Service
Medals strewn around by the thousands
where a bomb hit the reserve supply.
Germans selling anything and everything to
get food -- the streets cleaned up but
everything else a mess. Twenty-five -
fifty years -- years who knows what, to
clean up the smell -- and more smell -- it
was good to get back to our house.
Dinner with Tom and Rusk.
Marshall dined with Prime Minister.
Saw Russian troop train headed for
Russia -- it was filled with all manner of
loot -- most of which we would class as
junk. These Russians can't read or write
and never had any of the comforts of home
-- hence they collect anything that is
different -- broken furniture, old tires,
chandeliers, regardless of condition, live
stock -- on the trains it goes headed for
Victory Way with its statues was a
July 17, 1945
Fighting all through the Tiergarten --
statues, trees, benches scarred, marred
and destroyed. Benches still have signs
"Verboten fur Juden."
Up at 7:15.
Hot water boiler exploded -- no hot
J.C.S. meeting -- nothing special.
Hank Pool here for lunch:
Rest after lunch.
C.C.S. in P.M. Gave Portal, Brooks
[sic. Brooke], Cunningham and
Ismay books of photos showing destruction
of Jap cities.
Meeting over at 3:30.
Rested 4 to 5:45.
Dinner with President at 7:00 P.M.
Marshall and I walked up to Truman's
shack for dinner. We walked into the yard
and were accosted by the Secret Service
man at the door, "Who do you want to
We said, "We were invited to
He said, "There's no one here and they
won't be back until 8:00."
We walked in to check and found the
mess boys setting the table. They had a
seating arrangement -- we were on it, but
the official clock in the dining room said
6:45 and that the dinner was for 7:30. So
we came home.
Small dinner at 7:45. J.C.S. with
President and Secretary of War and
Secretary of State.
Home by 9:30.
July 18, 1945
It seems a shame that probably all of
the fine old books in the Potsdam Library
in private libraries, will end up in trash
heaps. A the moment that is what happens,
for the Russians have no organized means
of determining what books or anything else
is of value and should be saved. The
Potsdam Library has many wonderful, rare
Uncle Joe invited himself to lunch at
Truman's house yesterday. Stalin arrived
at about 12:00 and when asked whether
pictures could be made, replied "After
lunch." Up to that time no one of the
Truman house[hold?] expected him
to lunch. He stayed for lunch.
Lunch. During lunch word came in that
Secretary of War wanted to see Marshall
and me. He had cable of successful test of
S-1 [atomic bomb at Alamogordo] --
200 miles and 50 miles .
C.C.S. British accepted our policy for
control of operations in Pacific.
J.C.S. King turned over Okinawa to
Marshall as host took C.C.S. to review
2nd Armored Division. It was lined up hub
to hub for
miles along Autobahn -- a most inspiring
sight -- a terrific display of power --
over 600 vehicles.
Dinner at house, then Soldier Show.
Very good -- Mickey Rooney star.
July 19, 1945
Sun shining after 3 days of clouds and
a slight drizzle. .
Refugees still flocking into and out of
Berlin. More going in than coming out.
Strangest and weirdest kinds of
conveyances -- 3-wheeled autos, trailers,
horsedrawn vehicles, bicycles, baby
carriages, express wagons, home-made
wagons -- men, women and children, horses
pulling and pushing. Men pulling 2-horse
wagons with straps over shoulders -- men,
women and children hiking along with packs
on back. There are, however, 3 women for
every man and the men are all quite old or
young boys or wounded.
Walking to J.C.S. Marshall was talking
about losing his zest and about time to
Note -- I bet him $5.00 that he would
still be in office when we declared peace
with Japan. He took the bet.
Talk with Portal re Air Forces -- past,
present and future.
Took auto ride to Tempelhof -- the
beating all Berlin and vicinity took is
indescribable. Not a section in any
direction that has not suffered severely.
Tempelhof hangars about 1/2 mile long
completely gutted by fire but not knocked
down. Evidently the G.A.F. used it as an
assembly point as there are crates and
boxes -- planes (fighters) in various
stages of assembly and unserviceability --
destroyed and partly destroyed. Runways
pock marked with bombs. It is all quite a
King told me of a transformer made on
the Dauntless that permits his using
safety razor on any current (it is a 220
-- 110 volt). The trans-former is about 4"
x 4" x 3". He said he would have one made.
I must have someone look it up when I get
Dinner at home.
Russians on march -- horsedrawn
vehicles with men and women aboard -- some
women in uniform, some just women. Wagons
piled high with all kinds of things -- no
two wagons the same. Men and women
marching hand in hand. All carrying
something different . It is no wonder that
it takes the Russian staff so long to make
suitable dispositions for attack. There is
nothing so dirty as a Russian soldier of
the ordinary Divisions.
Here and there are the trading posts
where Russians with 3 to 4 years of pay
(Russian printing press marks) meet German
civilians and U.S. soldiers .
- 1 cigarette -- 10 marks, 1 U.S.
- 1 package cigarettes -- 20
- I watch -- $200 to $300
- 1 bar chocolate -- 1 woman
Jewels, rings traded for bread but
principally for canned meat. Trading posts
in action with hundreds of people all day
U.S. finance officers change marks
(anything less than 500 M) into dollars.
Russians print them, the U.S. redeems
them. We are once again the fat boy --
July 20, 1945
Up at 7:15. The start of a very
J.C.S. in morning.
Saw Eisenhower and "Joe" Davies just
Joe Cannon for lunch.
C.C.S. after lunch.
A visit to Sans Sorice [sic.
Souci] -- Neues Palais and Orangerie
-- all unharmed by bombing. A little
damage from machine gun, grenade, mortar
and artillery fire. The paintings, some
furniture still there -- all under Russian
control. Russians that could not speak
English but each one had a German who
could tell us the story of each room as we
The castles, palaces are beyond
description. The pictures, clocks,
paintings, furnishings, mantels, tables
out of this world.
The grotto in Neues Palais -- almost
grotesque with its stones from the 4
corners of the world -- petrified wood
given by T. R. [Theodore
Roosevelt?] to K. W. [Kaiser
Wilhelm] II. Stones from everywhere --
shells of all kinds making a wall
covering. The theatre -- the rooms
occupied by K. W. II and the Kaiserine all
devoid of furniture that he took to Doorn,
The Russians who looked dumbly on as
Geo. Marshall, Tom Sheffield, Frank
McCarthy and I went from room to room.
The beautiful grounds with the
fountains that the Russians turned on for
Palaces built in the 1758 -- 1760 and
Decorations in gold, silver, malachite,
marble -- what more can I say?
Then dinner at home.
- Field Marshal
- Field Marshal Wilson
- General of the Army
- Field Marshal
- Lieutenant General
- General of the Army
- 5 stars
- 5 stars
- 5 stars
- 5 stars
- 3 stars
- 5 stars
After dinner we went to a
concert by the R.A.F. band and we
had. a real galaxy of stars.
- General Ismay
- General of the Army
- Field Marshal
- Marshal of R.A.F.
- General of the Army
- Chief of Imp. Gen. Staff
- Admiral of the Fleet
- First Sea Lord
- Field Marshal
- Field Marshal Wilson
- Major General
- 3 stars
- 5 stars
- 5 stars
- 5 stars
- 5 stars
- 5 stars
- 5 stars
- 5 stars
- 5 stars
- 5 stars
- 2 stars
What a bunch of Brass Hats, all sitting
on first row.
Alexander and Montgomery both worried
over the next winter in Germany and Italy.
Both feeling that the diplomats and
statesmen will make a botch of the peace
settlement. Both worried over the troubles
that the Germans will have as a result of
no heat, no heavy clothes, little food and
medicine, in proper government, probable
disease and epidemics, and a future war
about 20 years from now. Brooks
[Brooke] and Cunningham saying
It looks now as if we might leave here
July 21, 1945
P.M. -- C.C.S. with escort and in
convoy went into Charlottenburg to inspect
British Desert Division. Reviewing stand
near 1870 Peace Monument. Armored Division
lined up around monument and then all the
way to Brandenburg Arch -- quite a show --
Army, armor, infantry and artillery --
Marines -- and R.A.F.
Review ride around started at 10:10 and
last soldier passed reviewing stand at
Returned to J.C.S. Meeting supposed to
be at 11:30, actually at 12:15. .
Lunch at 1:45. General Maloney here for
C.C.S. at 3:30.
Meeting only lasted for about 20
Portal and Brooks [Brooke] off
to Bavaria to go fishing.
Returned to house and saw McDonald
about evaluating [evacuating?] all
the information -- 20,000 feet of
microfilm a day for 6 months -- to the
U.S. Necessary to establish an agency.
Tom Sheffield sold his Roulex
[sic] watch he bought in
Switzerland to a Russian for $500.00.
Dinner at home -- just the 5 of us --
Marshall, Tom, Frank, Shepley, Arnold.
July 22, 1945
Up at 7:30.
Decided to stay home and rest -- send
all my staff to Hamburg.
Read "Chronicle" of General Koller,
Chief of Staff of G.A.F. It will be
attached as appendix to first copy this
diary. No copies made.
Dr. Speers [sic. Albert Speer]
-- Effects of Bombing on German Production
will also be attached as appendix -- no
Worked on papers most of morning.
Rested after lunch.
Secretary of War had me for hour before
lunch on Super bombing. Where, Why and
what effects. I told him I would get up a
recommendation. Am sending Stone back to
U.S. to see Spaatz and G_______
[handwritten: Groves] to
Echols and Hank Pool came over and we
drove to Tempelhof. Saw underground F.W.
190 assembly line . Quite an affair -- but
output is very limited.
Returned in time to meet Pete and Yank
Arnold, who are now with us in compound.
They live with Staff next door.
Dinner with Byrnes, Harriman, Deane,
Parks, Marshall and me.
Byrnes -- what we must do now is not
make the world safe for democracy, but
make the world safe for the U.S.A.
Russia is like a greedy kid -- never
satisfied. When it gets one concession it
always has a couple more to request.
Has now taken over all marks and other
securities in all Berlin banks -- even
opened safe deposit vaults and confiscated
everything. This, with its printing press
marks, makes it possible to practically
sovetize [sic] that part of
Germany it occupies. It now has granted
authority to reopen German banks on date
after the Russians took all the money.
The U.S. made the plates and the
Russians print the money.
July 23, l945
It looks very much as if there must be
two standards of economy in Germany -- one
in the Russian area and one in balance of
Germany. However, the French, by taking
away all livestock and living on the
country, are creating a condition in which
outside aid must be given to keep the
Germans from starving in their area.
The U.S. will be called upon to feed
not only the French in France but also the
Germans in the French area.
Another point -- neither the Russians
nor the French show any indica-tions of
helping out with their respective coal
fields -- the Russians the Silesian that
has been given to the Poles, and the
French in the Saar.
Germany, to make any comeback, must
start certain fundamental commercial
industries. This they cannot do without
coal and machine tools. The Russians have
taken and are taking all machine tools and
sending them to Russia. All the loot is
called war booty and none is credited
against the Russian reparation demands.
The Russians claim that there is no way to
inventory it. They are right, for they
haven't the slightest idea as to what any
soldier took or what has been sent back to
Russia or from where it was taken.
One German girl was raped 9 times by
Russians in 2 days -- that is typical of
the lack of control of the Russian
J.C.S at 9:30.
C.C.S. at 11:30.
Lunch -- rest.
Conference with Secretary of War re
ultra bombing effort and its results on
Japanese desire for Peace. Surrounding
communities, other nations, psychological
reactions of Japanese. Effect of weather
Sent a radio to Spaatz.
Some day someone will dissolve the
atom, release the atomic forces and
harness the resultant terrific power as a
destructive explosive. When?
Dinner with Prime Minister tonight.
[Handwritten: Ismay re
Hank, Pete and crew of ARGONAUT IV went
to Berlin and met the Russians at the
Barter Market. They all came back well
The dinner was quite an affair --
President of U.S., Prime Minister, Marshal
Stalin, and their military staffs. Three
Foreign Secretaries were also present. The
toasts were many as per usual. The Prime
Minister, Stalin, and the President were
all in good form. Stalin announced with no
attempt at secrecy that "now that the war
in Europe is over, we have a common enemy
in the Pacific, and here's to our next
meeting -- in Tokyo." I told Stalin, the
Prime Minister and the Presi-dent that if
our B-29s continued their present tempo
there would be nothing left of Tokyo in
which to have a meeting.
Autograph seekers ran wild and, strange
to say, Stalin himself joined the throng
and brought his menu around to have it
signed. (Mine had already been signed by
most of those present.)
The R.A.F. band gave some fine
selections but as the music interfered
with the toasts, the music was often
stopped. Finally the Big Three left the
dining room and went into the music room
where they could hear -- with no
The toasts then continued and we
finally broke up at 11:45. I believe
everyone came home under their own
July 24, 1945
Meeting with President and Prime
Minister at 11:30.
Prior to that Hank and Pete came in and
I started them off to town.
At White House were President, Prime
Minister and the C.C.S. Lord Leathers and
Somervell came in late.
We agreed on and accepted the C.C.S.
Had 20 minutes rest.
Then on to Crown Princess Cecilia
Palace [the Cäcilienhof].
We discussed the future operations in
Secretary of War came to see me re
ultra Super Bombing. I told him to wait
until I heard from Spaatz.
Dinner with King and C.C.S. 201st
meeting -- a fine party.
A couple of games of gin rummy with
Howard Rusk, and then to bed at 10:15
Louis Mountbatten gave us his Burma
story at cocktails at our house prior to
King's dinner. Gave full credit to A.F. As
a matter of fact, said that the Burma
Campaign could not have been possible
except for air lift. Air supplied all of
his troops during most of Burma Campaign.
30,000 tons was a normal procedure,
monsoons or no monsoons, mountains or no
Mountbatten was very positive in
statement that the whole Royal Family in
Japan are morons -- so much inbred that
they are not up to normal of rest of
Japanese, that the Royal Family should all
be liquidated. He knows them
King had C.C.S. at dinner -- their
201st meeting -- a grand dinner. All went
to R.A.F. musical at Neue Palace -- I
excused myself and went to bed.
July 25, 1945
Up with impression that this would be a
day of rest and relaxation. At 3:45
talking to Pete and Hank.
At 9:05 the Secretary of War sent for
Chief of Staff and Commanding General,
At 10:45 the President sent for the
Chief of Staff.
At 11:15 the Chief of Staff had Hull,
Somervell, Lincoln and me in for
conference that lasted until 12:00.
At 11:30 D'Olier called, but I was not
able to see him and sent Norstad down to
do the honors.
At 12:15 I had Cabell in for
instructions and sent for Echols.
12:30 Jamison came in for
12:45 Norstad came in and was given his
information and instructions.
Took a long walk in P.M. Saw parts of
Potsdam Where Germans live -- 6 or 8
people in houses -- houses undamaged and
well kept -- one house in midst of others
badly damaged. Looked as. if brick
revetments had been placed around sdoors
and that windows had been bricked up --
apparently Russians suspected it, for they
wrecked it thoroughly and completely.
Dinner at house with Hank, Woodward,
Cabell, Marshall, Tom, Frank and
Hope to get away tomorrow -- work with
British completed and Russians can send
their answers to us.
Received word that Malin Craig was
dead. It is a merciful thing -- his
usefulness was ended long ago. He was
utterly helpless. He was one of my best
friends -- helped me time and time again
and was an excellent Chief of Staff -- at
his time. It was a shame that he was so
isolated from his family and had never
found a hobby, something to keep him
July 26, 1945
[Handwritten: Election day
Conferences with Marshall and re:
- (a) Conference with Russians,
- (b) Going home.
Conference with Marshall, Hull,
Lincoln, Norstad and Cabell
Lunch and conference with Marshall and
Picture with Staff (A.F.).
Conference with Russians and J.C.S.
Russians agreed to all of our requests
and were able to make decisions at the
table, although Uncle Joe wasn't there.
Antonov (Chief of Staff), Fallalev (Air),
Responsibilities were even delegated to
the local commander at Vladivostok .
What a change.
Churchill was defeated according to
- 355 Labor
- 186 Conservative
- 8,000,000 Labo[u]r
- 6, 000, 000 Conservative
Most of Churchill's Cabinet was
So passes the man who has held the
British Empire together -- made it work --
secured coordinated effort -- held off the
Germans -- united all factions in England.
His reward -- defeat for office by the
President down at Frankfurt so we still
don't know whether or not we can get away
Agreed at 9:00 that J.C.S. could leave
Packed -- bed at 11:00.
July 27, 1945
To airport at 9:00.
Took-off at 9:30.
Paris 547 miles.
Get out my 1911 prognostication of
future of airplanes in war to use in
J.C.S. broke up this A.M.
British Chief [sic. Chiefs?] of
Staff in London and will not come
Attlee will be here to try and take up
the load where the British people caused
Churchill to drop it.
King takes a trip to the ports and then
gets back to Potsdam for the arrival of
Forrestal, Secretary of Navy.
Stimson has already gone to
Berchtesgaden and then to Washington.
Marshall and his party to Berchtesgaden
for 2 or 3 days, and then on to
President plans to leave about
J.C.S. left Cooke, Hull and Norstad
behind to help Leahy and the President.
Landed Paris 12:40.
Met by Cannon, Hoag, etc., and came
with Sheffield to Ritz where I was given
same suite I had last April.
Had lunch with Joe Cannon, Tom and
Outlined to Joe same of the things that
happened at Potsdam that he is interested
in. Rested for 2 '/2 hours.
Larry Bell and Summers of C.A.A. came
in for a while.
Dinner with the bunch and Mrs. Giles,
Mr. and Mrs. Parsons, Helen Kirkpatrick,
Gabrielle Andreu, General Cannon, General
In bed at 10:30.
July 25, 1945
Up at 7:30.
A grand night to sleep -- not so light
all night as at Berlin. Here it gets dark
at 9:30 -- at Berlin about 11:00.
Rank Pool picked up a room full of
films of the pictorial history of the
G.A.F. This should be shown, evaluated,
digested, edited and plans made to utilize
- (a) A.A.F. Movie History,
- (b) In theatres of U.S. to educate
- (c) At our A.A.F. Schools ,
- (d) At other Schools, including
High Schools and Colleges.
Took-off at 10:10 for Santa Maria,
E.T.A. 18:01 P.W.T.
Arrived Santa Maria 5:50 S.M.W.T.
Inspected Post -- went through town.
Saw harbor and a very small burro with a
very large pack saddle and a very old
grizzled man -- small and bewhiskered. I
wanted to know how much of a load the
burro could carry with its small, delicate
legs. I asked Tom to use his best Spanish
or French, and the little old man said in
excellent English, "About 10 bushels of
Upon questioning, he had lived in
Connecticut for 20 years, and later in the
Azores for 40 -- he was 70 years old.
Took-off for Stephensville at 22:40
A.W.T. 1855 miles.
E.T.A. 7:40 A.W.T. or 5:40 M.F.W.T.